International Journal of Health and Biological Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Health and Biological Sciences (IJHBS) </strong>is an open-access; freely accessible, online and print bimonthly peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research on all medical specialties including ethical and social issues. IJHBS is a gateway to enlighten the latest research/issues happening all around the world of medical and health sciences.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal publishes Original research articles in the form of full-length papers or short communications especially those with multidisciplinary nature. The journal welcomes review articles, mini-reviews, case reports, letter to the editor, guest editorial or commentaries.</p> en-US (Stephan) (International Journal of Health and Biological Sciences) Thu, 28 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A Systematic review on the impact of peer education on self-care behaviors of patients <p>Introduction: One-of-a-kind education methods that are effective in facilitating and improving health and creating an appropriate learning environment are peer education. The peer is a person belonging to the same social group that people believe in terms of their ability to resemble themselves and can have powerful impacts on learning. Use their experiences to provide an educational program to other peers who are in trouble and yet they do not have the necessary skills in the care and control of symptoms associated with the disease. Can be helpful in controlling disease and controlling disease. This systematic review study was conducted to determine the effect of peer education on self-care behaviors in patients. Materials and Methods: In this systematic review Using articles published in the last 25 years on the impact of peer education on patient self-care behaviors. It was conducted in English and Persian by searching articles in search engines, authoritative scientific sites and databases SID, Google Scholar, Embase, Sciencedirect, PubMed, Springer. In the first stage, 39 articles were found. Of these, 10 articles related to the topic published in the last 25 years were reviewed. Results: In this study, aimed at the effect of peer education on self-care behaviors of patients, ten articles were reviewed, the results of one of them, sponsored by peers in the self-care of patients with diabetes, showed that peer education led to increased self-care, proper use of medications and reducing the need for insulin in the peer group is more than controlled.Conclusion: The study showed that peer education seems to be an effective method for reducing anxiety in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Therefore, it is recommended to use this educational approach in cardiac surgery to educate patients. Also, the effect of peer education on self-care behaviors in diabetic patients is significant. In addition to the impact of this type of training on the diseases studied in this study, this type of education can be effective in many other diseases as an effective way. Therefore, it is recommended to use this method in further research to reduce anxiety, improve self-care behaviors, and so on in patients.</p> Mostafa Madmoli, Mahboobeh Khodadadi, Fahimeh Papi Ahmadi, Mehdi Niksefat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparison of three Methods to Estimate the Glomerular Filtration Rate in Diabetic Patients at the Ngaoundere Regional Hospital (Cameroon) <p>Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) can be done using different methods. The cheaper and most available are those with formulas to determine the estimated GFR. The majority of these formulas have been developed among extra- African populations. In Sub-Saharan Africa, 3 formulas are almost used to estimate GFR which are MDRD, CG and CKD-EPI. This present study was conducted to assess the importance of these formulas as estimators of GFR for diabetic among African Populations. The study was conducted at the Ngaoundere Regional Hospital. Only diabetics from 30 to 78 years attending the regional hospital were enrolled in the study. After enrolment, diabetics with very high values of urea and/or creatinine were excluded. We evaluated CG, MDRD and CKD–EPI as estimators of GFR. Creatinine clearance of 24 hours has been considered as gold standard method. 60 participants were included for sex ratio (M/F) 1.5. The average eGFR of diabetics with high Blood Pressure was lower (91.2 ml / min) than diabetics with lower Blood Pressure (102 ml / min) according to ClCr24. A significant correlation (0.975) between MDRD and CKD-EPI was found when measuring eGFR. It was less significant between CG and MDRD (0.663) and; between CG and CKD-EPI (0.729). A strong similarity was noticed between MDRD and CKD-EPI (92%) while it was smaller between MDRD and CG (55%) and between CKD-EPI and CG (63%) when estimating the stage of kidney diseases. Compared to ClCr24, similarity in half results was found with MDRD (50%) and less than half with CKD-EPI (48%) and CG (38%). The study shown higher value of fasting blood glucose of diabetics attending the Ngaoundere Regional Hospital (212.1 ± 83.0 mg / dl) than the normal recommandation (127-144 mg / dl) for diabetic patients. The average value of the eGFR with MDRD (76.6 ± 20.0 mL / min) was closer to CKD-EPI (78.8 ± 20.4 ml / min) (P&lt;0,001 ; X2=0,976). eGFR was lower in diabetics with high Blood Pressure compared to diabetics with low Blood Pressure. Estimation of CKD stages using MDRD and CKD shown significant similarity. In conclusion, CKD-EPI and MDRD estimated better the GFR. MDRD presented values that were closer to the Creatinine clearance of 24 hours. Further studies are needed with more participants to evaluate the best formula between MDRD and CKD-EPI for the estimation of GFR in Sub-Saharan diabetic population.</p> Mbarawa Marat Kofia Ibrahim, Ndoe Guiaro Marcellin, Mohamadou Lawan Loubou, Marcel Tangyi Tamanji, Kagoue Simeni Luc-Aime, Fokam Guy Duplex ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A systematic review on the impact of empowerment in improving self-care behaviors and some other factors in diabetic patients <p>Introduction: Traditional education seems to be sufficient in meeting the needs related to knowledge of patients, However, by recognizing the impact of psychosocial issues and the environment on patients 'behavior, educational techniques were used to change patients' behavior. And the education approach to diabetic patients has changed, as well as the theory and research on diabetes was introduced. And the focus of the capacity building approach to adapt treatment to self-efficacy and empowerment was changed. Empowerment is a collaborative approach to diabetes care and patient education. This systematic review was conducted with the aim of empowerment in improving self-care behaviors in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the aim of the study and to improve the accuracy of the study and its comprehensive understanding, this review study was conducted based on the Broome method. This method is carried out in three steps: searching for texts, evaluating data and analyzing data. So, in the search phase, postretrospective study texts are examined in four stages in terms of inclusion criteria. After obtaining the conditions for entry into the study, the content of the study is evaluated and at the end of the analysis of the data. Results: In this study, 12 articles were reviewed that showed that the empowerment approach of diabetic patients improves self-efficacy and self-care scores and reduces hemoglobin A1C, Improvement of general self-care behaviors, reduction of mean glycosylated hemoglobin and improvement of quality of life, blood glucose control, and so on. Conclusion: In researches done on the empowerment approach of diabetic patients, the importance of empowerment approach is confirmed by increasing control and self-care and improving some other factors in diabetic patients. Therefore, considering the importance of the concept of empowerment as an effective approach to supporting patients with diabetes, it is necessary to consider this approach in further<br>research.</p> Mostafa Madmoli, Mohammad Madmoli, Marzieh Abbaszade Aliabad, Mahboobeh Khodadadi, Fahimeh Papi Ahmadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Integrative Nursing Science in Women’s Pre-conceptional Wellness <p>Women's health care has separated childbearing from health promotion and management of chronic health. A critical dimension of an integrative nursing of women's health is bringing together childbearing with women's health during the life span. This integration is needed in areas such as preconception care. When Women's Health Care is viewed as an integrated continuum approach to health, rather than as a series of episodic events, higher levels of women's wellness will be achieved. An integrative science enhances research promoting women's health and patterns of care aimed at disease prevention. This article represents nursing Science in Women’s Pre-conceptional Wellness.</p> Hanan Elzeblawy Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 ESTIMATION OF SERUM COPPER AND ZINC LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH ORAL SUB MUCOUS FIBROSIS AND ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA <p>Trace elements are receiving too much attention as they are found to be significantly altered in head and neck, lung and breast carcinomas, and there is need to develop sensitive, specific and faster tests as an aid in the early diagnosis of the primary tumor and its recurrence or malignant transformation in premalignant states.Aim: To estimate serum copper and zinc levels in Oral Submucous Fibrosisand oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Methodology: Sera of OSCC (n = 10) and OSMF (n = 10) patients and of healthy controls was analysed for the estimation of Cu and Zn using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: There was an increase in sera levels of Cu while those of Zn were decreased in both Oral Submucous fibrosis and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma patients as compared to the healthy controls. Conclusion: It could be concluded that there is an alteration of sera levels of these trace elements which can be helpful in early detection and management in OSMF and OSCC patients.</p> Rajeev Aggarwal, Abhiney Puri, Rajat Nangia, Nitish Bhat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the lived experiences Caregiving for Children Living with Disabilities in Mukuru Slums, Kenya; Implications for Health and Wellness in Caregiving <p>Caregivers are entrusted with provision of the needs of those who are incapacitated by disabilities in the society. However, they face many challenges in the process of caregiving. This study investigated the health and wellbeing challenges experienced by caregivers of children living with disabilities and to explore the coping mechanisms employed by caregivers of children living with disability. It adopted descriptive cross-sectional study design and a qualitative phenomenological method of data collection. In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data from sixteen (16) primary caregivers of children with disabilities. Data were audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed using Max Qualitative Data Analysis Software Version 12. Authority to collect the data was sought from county government Embakasi Constituency. The study established health consequences of caregiving included physical activity limitations, physical exhausted during caregiving, side effects of some of the medications and risks of developing high blood pressure, ulcers and depression. The study concludes that caregivers of Children Living with Disability face unique social, economic and health and wellbeing experiences. The study therefore recommends programs aimed at addressing such challenges as a necessary public health initiative.</p> Eunice Ndirangu, Ronnie Midigo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000